william ernest henley tuberculosis

He anonymously contributed several poems to the paper. T he title of this short yet powerful poem is “Invictus” which, in Latin, means “unconquered.” It was written by the English author William Ernest Henley (1849–1903) who in 1875, was recovering from the amputation of his leg due to sever tuberculosis. Born in Stirling, she was the youngest daughter of Edward Boyle, a mechanical engineer from Edinburgh, and his wife, Mary Ann née Mackie. He left his position in 1893. However, for the next eight years, his frequent stay in the hospital would affect his work. Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease which is caused by a bacterial infection which is generally spread through the air. [4], Throughout his life, the contrast between Henley's physical appearance and his mental and creative capacities struck acquaintances in completely opposite, but equally forceful ways. While recovering from surgery in an Edinburgh infirmary, Henley began a friendship with author Robert Louis Stevenson. His influence in the artistic circle became even higher during his career as editor of journals and magazines. Originally the fourth part of a longer sequence published in Henley's collection In Hospital, this 16-line section has taken on a life of its own. With four stanzas and sixteen lines, each containing eight syllables, the poem has a rather uncomplicated structure. The paper had almost as many writers as readers, as Henley said, and its fame was confined mainly to the literary class, but it was a lively and influential contributor to the literary life of its era. [3]:31 Nevertheless, Henley was disappointed in the school itself, considered an inferior sister to the Cathedral School, and wrote about its shortcomings in a 1900 article in the Pall Mall magazine. "[10], Frequent illness often kept Henley from school, although the misfortunes of his father's business may also have contributed. The word invictus itself, is Latin for "unconquerable".This theme is carried on throughout the poem in stanza's, most obviously, "for my unconquerable soul." William Ernest Henley was born in Gloucester on 23 August 1849, the eldest of six children. In 1889 the Chicago Daily Tribune ran an article about the promise that Henley showed in the field of poetry. That he plunged for a solution; From the age of 12, Henley suffered from tuberculosis of the bone. She died at age 5. Henley did not fully recover of tuberculosis and died of it on July 11, 1903, at age 53. [4], In 1902, Henley fell from a railway carriage. "[4] In addition to his inviting its articles and editing all content, Henley anonymously contributed tens of poems to the journal, some of which were described by contemporaries as "brilliant" (later published in a compilation by Gleeson White). William Ernest Henley was born in Gloucester on 23 August 1849, the eldest of six children. And his children in the workhouse About William Ernest Henley. When William was sixteen years old, he had issues with his leg due to tuberculosis. [5], From the age of 12, Henley suffered from tuberculosis of the bone that resulted in the amputation of his left leg below the knee in 1868–69. Between 1861 and 1867, Henley was a pupil at the Crypt Grammar School. Invictus means unconquerable or undetected in Latin. What is there I would not do, England my own?[39]. After reading this poem over and over again you can tell the speaker is going through some sort of pain. Henley’s next editing position was with the Edinburgh journal, Scots Observer. [25] His widow, Anna, moved to 213 West Campbell-St, Glasgow, where she lived until her death.[26]. When they came, and found, and saved him. cit. The sum total of Henley's professional and artistic efforts is said to have made him an influential voice in late Victorian England, perhaps with a role as central in his time as that of Samuel Johnson in the eighteenth century. [11]:135 This also marked the beginning of a fifteen-year friendship with Stevenson. Between 1861 and 1867, Henley was a pupil at the Crypt Grammar School. [3]:35[6][7] The early years of Henley's life were punctuated by periods of extreme pain due to the draining of his tuberculosis abscesses. Draft #2 "Invictus" is a poem filled with the interpretations and vision of the author. And, although his knife was edgeless, He was on the verge of losing his right leg until he became a patient of the immortal surgeon Joseph Lister. When he was recovering, he was moved to write some lines that became the Invictus poem. [2] In a letter to Henley after the publication of Treasure Island (1883), Stevenson wrote, "I will now make a confession: It was the sight of your maimed strength and masterfulness that begot Long John Silver ... the idea of the maimed man, ruling and dreaded by the sound, was entirely taken from you. [16][17], After Robert Louis Stevenson received a letter from Henley labelled "Private and Confidential" and dated 9 March 1888, in which the latter accused Stevenson's new wife Fanny of plagiarizing his cousin Katherine de Mattos' writing in the story "The Nixie," the two men ended their friendship, though a correspondence of sorts did resume later after their mutual friends intervened. [41][42] This historical event was captured in fictional form in the Clint Eastwood film Invictus (2009), wherein the poem is referenced several times. William Ernest Henley (1849-1903) William Henley was a British poet, editor and critic. Tuberculosis took one of his feet as a child, and almost claimed another leg as a young adult. He continued to work with the journal after it was moved to London in 1891 to become National Observer. Explore William Ernest Henley's biography, personal life, family and cause of death. Forming the subject matter of the "hospital poems" were often Henley's observations of the plights of the patients in the hospital beds around him. "Some Memories and Impressions – William Ernest Henley". 1849. Henley was diagnosed with tuberculosis when he was only 12 years-old. [3]:35 His work over the next eight years was interrupted by long stays in hospitals, because his right foot had also become diseased. In 1873, his other leg was also affected by tuberculosis, but thanks to the innovative treatment of Dr Joseph Lister, who used his new antiseptic surgical method at the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary, it was not amputated. Ultimately, he needed a below knee amputation of the left lower limb to treat the disease invading his bones (see Operation). In Chapter Two of her first volume of autobiography, I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings (1969), Maya Angelou writes in passing that she "enjoyed and respected" Henley's works among others such as Poe's and Kipling's, but had no "loyal passion" for them. The late Victorian period excite and inspire the reader I am quite out of the immortal Joseph... Which is generally spread through the air born in Gloucester from 1861 to.. Art, through which he promoted works of Auguste Rodin and James McNeil Whistler Henley survived thrived! Sons and a pupil of the hospital would affect his work feet as a child, and detailed poem of! To live, William Ernest Henley did a great job of giving details and thoughts, so reader... Became even higher during his lifetime Henley had become fairly well known a... 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