why did luke edit mark's gospel

Vridar » Making of a Mythicist — ch 17 . Notice that there is no line between Matthew and Luke. The claim is made – and this is correct – that no gospel names its author. Do you not believe that Ireneaus’ connections in the court of Commodus were enough for him to have the Marcionites persecuted at the end of the 2nd century? Thank you for this careful and engaged reading of my work – much appreciated!”, “Very good. Good job.”, “I’ve even been cited by atheists with approval (which I really don’t know how to take, so thanks, I think, but I’m not sure, Vrider (even though I feel like I need to take a shower now)).”, “Thanks for this detailed interaction! According to course materials (Bible, textbook, digital materials linked below, etc. He became a follower after the Lord’s death, when Paul taught him the gospel. It’s tempting to ask whether there even is a problem to be solved. 004894. Augustine of Hippo argued that the Biblical order—Mathew, Mark then Luke—is the correct order, of which the gospels were written. At every turn, it seems, he takes opportunity to teach, regularly overpowering the conversation so that others have to remain quiet.” This is particularly interesting in comparison with Mark, where it is no exaggeration to say that Jesus is the strong, silent type who speaks relatively rarely and is much more a man of action. The anointing is further justified by its rich symbolic connotations as the woman’s physical testimony of her prophetic knowledge. [4]It is possible that Luke had a defective copy of Mark’s Gospel which was missing Mark 14:3–9, so that Luke’s omission does not reflect Luke’s deliberate excision of the story. It is episodic in the sense of just one thing after the other. , Maybe, by listing the grave clothes, the Gospel of John creates a verisimilitude that gives more credence to all that…, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, When, Why and How People Change Their Minds, Applying Bayesian Reasoning to Trump’s Claims of Election Fraud, Tactics of Religious Innovation: Deuteronomy and Gospels « Vridar. That’s assuming that Marcionites were a separate religion rather than a Your email address will not be published. The contrast between Luke and Mark’s portrayal of the temple is never as keen as it is when Jesus dies: Mark narrates the rending of the temple veil after Jesus’ death, suggesting increased temple access through the death of Jesus; this is his final reference to the temple. Best, Emanuel. So when some people object that the ointment could have been sold and the money given to the poor, they offer what seems to be a pretty reasonable complaint. Both books are addressed to Theophilus (Luke 1:3, Acts 1:1), and Acts begins by mentioning a “former book” which is very likely a reference to the Gospel of Luke. Firstly, two of the four Gospels don't feature the story of Jesus' birth at all. This much is clear. As we have mentioned before, the books of Luke and Acts are a single work, often referred to as Luke-Acts. He became a follower after the Lord’s death, when Paul taught him the gospel. And they came, and filled both the ships, so that they began to sink. The Gospel of Luke was written to Theophilus, meaning "the one who loves God." The book is written to the Gentiles as well, and all people everywhere. How and why would Luke have edited Mark 14:3-9 contrasted with Luke 7:36-50? Jesus tells them to leave her alone because she has done a good work: the poor, he says, will always be there, but he will not. The Great Omission is the name generally given to a point in the gospel of Luke at which there is no parallel to a long section (approximately 75 verses) of the gospel of Mark. But in Luke, the rending of the veil occurs immediately before Jesus dies, suggesting an entirely different symbolism: what Brown calls “the unhappy hand”[24] of God expressing displeasure at Jesus’ death. Next, Christology refers to the study of the identity of Jesus. And when they had this done, they inclosed a great multitude of fishes: and their net brake. . The fact that this introduction of Luke’s Gospel makes his Gospel no more than a personal letter. Bruce N. Fisk. . Explain how and why Luke may have edited Mark’s Gospel. Use the following two sets of passages to support your claim. By the way, this is why many later Gospels are falsely attributed to apostles (e.g. While Mark wrote and circulated his Gospel before Luke wrote his, Luke didn’t edit the Gospel of Mark. And Jesus is very patient with them while they do so. Luke simply wrote another testament. Why? On the question of omission, the answer cannot be merely that Mark and John did not have the material. [2] In the first two verses of Luke 22, Luke closely tracks Mark’s text as he describes the plot against Jesus. Most of the Gospel of Mark is included in the Gospel of Luke, as this was one of Luke’s main sources. By the way, my thanks to Neil for an ongoing superb job of exposing Jim’s review for what it is: a farcical and none too effective exercise in mythicism assassination, nothing to do with rational, let alone unbiased, scholarship. It is the shortest and the earliest of the four Gospels and is traditionally attributed to St. Mark, a disciple of St. Peter. “I have found your website really valuable as an interpretive filter for Biblical scholarship, especially the origins of Christianity and historicity of Jesus issue. they were hearing him, and asking him questions” (JST 2:46). Mark suggests that the temple is as corrupt as a leper’s house by following the same outline of events as Leviticus 14, a text which describes the procedure for cleansing a leprous house. Apart from calling his disciples at the beginning of his ministry, there is little obvious narrative structural sequence to the events in Mark. Canonical Luke does not narrate the calling of the disciples but their commissioning. The gospels of Matthew 4:1-11, Mark 1:12-13 and Luke 4:1-13 tell us that Jesus was tempted by the tempter (Matthew 4:3) or Satan (Mark 1:13), who is also called the devil (Luke 4:3). . The claim is Matthew did not write Matthew; John did not write John; Mark did not write Mark; and Luke did not write Luke. Dr. Darrell Bock - "Did Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John actually author the gospel accounts?" It has different interests. 6 (December 1, 2012): 435–441. Thus on an obvious level, Mark’s Christology is low. By omitting the withering of the fig tree[22] and relocating the cursing of the fig tree and presenting it as a parable,[23] Luke removes Mark’s bracketing of the cleansing of the temple with references to the fig tree and thus reshapes and neutralized the message concerning the temple. Given that, in Mark 14:9, Jesus proclaims that wherever the gospel is preached, the woman’s actions will be spoken of as a memorial of her, it is perhaps ironic that Luke omits this passage from his own Gospel. On the other hand, Luke edited the book of Mark by giving a detailed information, where one of the Pharisees invites Jesus to eat… (1198 Words) But if you look at the outside columns, you see that there are some significant differences as well: its chronology in Jesus ministry,[32] whether Simon is a leper or a Pharisee, whether the woman is unidentified or a sinner, whether the head or the feet are anointed, what the objection is, the context of the reference to “pence,” the context of the reference to forgiveness of debts, Jesus’ response, and the main points of the story. So, please continue to delve deeply and share this intellectual sustenance with your grateful readers.”, — Mary Booker, – February 2020 (personal email), “These reviews of yours are so bloody weird!”. The Pharisee identifies Jesus as a would-be prophet, one of Luke’s favored ways of describing Jesus. In that story, Jesus is dining at the home of Simon the leper. I think it expands, and contributes to, the effort in honouring Thomas that we with Lukasz originally had in mind with this volume. It’s always gratifying when a reader zeroes in on exactly those aspects I thought were most interesting and most central to my argument. I refer to your site frequently as yet more names and publications pop up requiring an academic critique and helpful recommendations for book purchases. Secondly, the Luke 5 lake scene is not a calling of the disciples as it is in Mark’s gospel. Here’s how he restates the shopworn charge on Colbert: “What people have done is they’ve taken Mark’s gospel and Luke’s gospel and combined them together into one big gospel, which is not like either Mark or Luke.” The very nature of biography, however, is to pick and choose elements of a congruent story that the biographer wishes to emphasize. I think these are the historical suppositions that Catholics want you to believe, not the truth itself. 2. If there is one historical event behind both accounts, note that while it is almost universally recognized that Mark was written first, older does not always mean more accurate. Saint Mark the Evangelist wrote the second gospel, the Gospel according to Mark. John Mark is accredited with the Second Gospel, Luke is credited with the Third, and John is ascribed with the Fourth Gospel by Papias and preserved by Eusebius of Caesarea (A.D. 260-340). [3] In addition, John is ascribed with the Fourth Gospel by Irenaeus in his work Against Heresies [4] . So attention to women in Luke’s Gospel is definitely extensive, especially for its cultural context. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. How might these differing viewpoints explain Luke’s omission of Mark’s anointing story? I believe Luke edited Mark 14 3-9 because he wanted to portray a clearer understanding of what it means to follow Jesus. . The text of the Sermon on the Mount differs significantly between Luke and Matthew, and Mark again omits it. Elsewhere in this gospel we read of Jesus visiting a Pharisee’s house for dinner. (2) The wording is frequently very similar and changes follow a pattern, including omission of the historical present tense (in 150 out of 151 instances), reduction in the use of the words “and” and “immediately,” providing antecedents to pronouns that might be ambiguous, and a more refined style of Greek writing in general. Top Answer. Explain how and why Luke may have edited Mark's Gospel. [20] And while I’m not claiming to have solved the age-old problem of Mark’s “messianic secret” (which is: why Jesus sometimes commands people not to tell others about him), I have found that many of the knots unravel when one pays attention to family relationships. Via Lena Einhorn and her paper JESUS AND THE EGYPTIAN PROPHET we know that Mark already knew about the Egyptian Prophet and, at a minimum, based some of the stories of … 1 Use the following two sets of passages to support your claim. Like St. Matthew, Luke derives much of his Gospel from that of St. Mark, generally following Mark’s sequence and incorporating about 50 percent of Mark’s material into his work.The Gospels of Luke and Matthew, however, share a good deal of material not found in The Gospel According to Mark, suggesting that the two evangelists may have had access to another common source. Daniel Gullotta’s Review of Richard Carrier’s, Death and Resurrection of the Beloved Son (Levenson), Ending of the Gospel of Mark (16:8) — ANNOTATED INDEX, Genre of Gospels, Acts and OT Primary History: INDEX, Historical Methods (with reference to the study of Christian Origins/Historicity of Jesus). Discipleship is an enormously important theme in both Mark’s and Luke’s Gospels. This oversight has been corrected. What Is the Purpose of the Nicodemus Stories in John? Jesus casts out a demon – his fame spreads, Jesus enters Peter’s house and heals Peter’s mother-in-law, Many look for Jesus but Jesus leaves them behind. The crowds make the commissioning of the disciples, more than their calling in the hope they will succeed to the end, the real need. It reflects well on you. Use the following two sets of passages to support your claim. The temptation of Christ is a biblical narrative detailed in the gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke. The alterations range from improving Mark’s grammar, smoothing Mark’s negative portrayal of the apostles, changing the order of events, enhancing Mark’s image of Jesus, expanding Marcan stories… Neil is the author of this post. Note that all six of these texts from Mark are softened or omitted in Luke’s Gospel,[11] so that Luke’s picture of the disciples has much less emphasis on their weaknesses. Mark and Matthew didn’t say the disciples fell asleep, but Luke did. It is also possible that both Mark and Luke work from earlier (oral and/or written) traditions which lack the anointing story and only Mark chose to add the story to this location. If so, this may be seen as one more of many other arguably anti-Marcionite agendas in canonical Luke-Acts. If this is taken from Jeremiah 16:16 it could well be implying judgment, not salvation. But I have prayed for you, that your faith should not fail; and when you have returned to me, strengthen your brethren. 5. The Gospel of Rome vs. the Gospel of Jesus Christ: Two New testament Responses from the Churches Founded by Paul by Marianne P. Bonz May 30, 1998, Harvard University. If we think Mark is not chronological (either because of the Eusebius statement and/or because of the obvious literary design of the arrangement of the material), then it is hard to imagine how Luke would end up with virtually the same order of events if he had written a draft before handling Mark and/or wasn’t closely following Mark. No firm conclusions can be reached, but in all likelihood, he left the story out because it didn’t fit one or more of his theological objectives. [29] We can’t discern Luke’s motives from this historical distance, but this examination has shown that Mark’s anointing story would not have helped Luke develop several of his major themes. However, it can be argued that there is a good case to be made that the Gospel writers exercised a stronger editorial hand as they shaped a theologically rich presentation of the life of Jesus. If John did not agree with the virgin conception as described in the Gospels of Matthew or Luke, he certainly had the opportunity to correct the matter in his own work. Rather, as Kent Brown explains, the key teaching about discipleship in Luke is that disciples consecrate family, property, and lives to the Savior. I just suggest that, from an LDS perspective, we would not want to dismiss that position on the basis that Luke would not have changed Mark’s account or because there are significant differences between the two texts. In the three Gospels the voice from the cloud said slightly different things. Jesus having refused each temptation, Satan then departed and Jesus returned to Galilee to begin his ministry. And they beckoned unto their partners, which were in the other ship, that they should come and help them. [13] If Luke understood Mark to say that the disciples objected to the anointing, he might have chosen not to include this story in his own record because it did not cohere with the message that he wanted to present: Mark’s text shows a teaching moment, not a consecration opportunity, and thus doesn’t fit Luke’s focus. Jesus having refused each temptation, Satan then departed and Jesus returned to Galilee to begin his ministry. To read more about Neil, see our. Walking on Water in Matthew's Gospel: "A Proper Doxological Ending"? By Brian Chilton| The Four Gospels are the primary documents that describe the life and teachings of Jesus. Because they can be understood together. I find your blog most interesting and appreciate your ongoing effort to keep to the evidence for the issues discussed! Today I’d like to consider the reasons why Luke might have omitted this story. Frank F. Judd Jr. and Gaye Strathearn (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University; Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 2006), 92–107. happen to be some of the most astute and well-read amateurs you can read on the internet on the subject of biblical historicity. Luke’s procedure is similar, though Luke’s omissions are more extensive (e.g., Mark 6:45-8:26) and ends up reproducing just 51 percent of Mark’s content. This looks very much like the sort of thing we read in Exodus and Acts. [33]The situation is further complicated by the interpretive decisions that we make. So it is not that Mark’s story casts charity as unimportant; rather, it is precisely because it is so important that it can highlight the even greater significance of the anointing. He explains that she has anointed his body in preparation for burial and that what she has done will be told wherever the gospel is preached. (See the Infancy Narratives discussion and the Body of Luke discussion. Luke had been a physician, but he left that profession to travel with Paul. Jesus was called by Peter differently in the three Gospels. Did they all copy from someone else? Filed under: Biblical Studies, New Testament This original Hebrew version was likely used by … Although there is absolutely no agreement among NT scholars on the order in which Matthew, Mark, and Luke were written, many think Luke depended on either Matthew or Mark or both when writing his Gospel (cf. so why don’t we have Marcion’s actual work then? ): 1. (See S. Kent Brown, The Testimony of St. Luke, page 32.) I know of no other site which offers a wide range of topics related to careful critical analysis of historically and scripturally related issues.”, “I always enjoy reading Neil’s blog because I think that he is careful, thorough, intellectually fair, and honest.”. And if I may make a general comment on the question of what an LDS commentary might have to offer to the larger world of biblical studies: I can think of few analytical approaches more fitting than a special attention to home and family dynamics in sacred text, especially when combined, as Brown has done here, with close attention to and respect for women’s stories. Result. Why is he mentioned without any explanation when he first appears? It would have been most contrary to cultural expectations for a woman to anoint Jesus’ head, especially with these symbolic meanings, and so we have our second reason why Luke might have omitted the story. dissenting view among the ‘Catholics.’ If the latter be the case, which it obviously is, then the Catholic bishops could very well have destroyed Marcion’s original gospel, leaving those who followed his views to have to recreate it by editing one of the canonical gospels according to his principles. Mark has highlighted its shortcomings. Further, reflecting on the narrative logic above, this commissioning of the disciples arises directly out of the need for them to help with the spiritual harvest. More importantly, Luke’s transformation of the woman from an insider of Jesus’ circle into a well-known sinner also participates in a uniquely Lukan dynamic. Nothing is said in Mark of the women following Christ as He was led to the place of execution, "bewailing and lamenting Him" (Luke 23:27), for sometimes the suffering Servant of God is denied the sympathy of others. As we have learned from our previous modules, Mark was very direct and to the point in his account of the Gospel. So we might conclude that Luke has omitted Mark’s anointing because he wants to emphasize a different facet of what it means to be a disciple. [1] So when we notice differences between the two, we might wonder what motivated Luke to change Mark’s text. Luke includes details about John the Baptist and Elizabeth, while the others do not. Explain how and why Luke may have edited Mark’s Gospel. Discipleship is an enormously important theme in both Mark’s and Luke’s Gospels. I don’t always agree with them, but I respect their work.”, Thanks much for this book review. Jesus’ response quotes Deuteronomy 15:11, a text which mandates an ongoing obligation to care for the poor, but Jesus also notes that he will not always be with them. Mark and John jump straight into his baptism and ministry without reference to how or where he was born. [29]There are other possible reasons as well. Luke 1:1). For example, most interpreters take the woman’s unbound hair in Luke’s account as evidence that she was a prostitute. Jesus enters Peter’s house and heals Peter’s mother-in-law, Jesus is hindered by crowds as he teaches throughout Galilee, Crowds press upon Jesus by the lake and Jesus preaches to them. After all, his audience would have no chance to anoint Jesus―for them, serving the poor is central and anything else could be a distraction. The author uses the same trope in Acts, such as when Barnabas enlisted Paul’s help because of the mass conversions at Antioch. And he sat down, and taught the people out of the ship. The gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke are referred to as the synoptic Gospels because they include many of the same stories, often in a similar sequence and in similar or sometimes identical wording. The Gospel of Luke is unique in that it is a meticulous history—an “orderly account” (Luke 1:3) consistent with Luke’s medical mind—often giving details the other accounts omit. (Talbert, p.63). These similarities lead many scholars to conclude that both stories relate the same incident from the life of Jesus. His work is the product of a sophisticated theological mind, assisted by the Holy Spirit, of course. Nonetheless, there is a narrative logic overlaying the incongruities. Required fields are marked *. Perhaps Mark is the one who has heavily edited the story and Luke’s tradition is closer to the historical reality. So perhaps the reason that Luke chose to omit Mark 14:3–9 is that it did not mesh well with his emphasis on serving the poor. Since Mark is our earliest gospel, written according to most scholars around the time of the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans in 70 CE, or perhaps in the decade before, we have strong textual evidence that the first generation of Jesus followers were perfectly fine with a gospel account that recounted no appearances of Jesus. Very short answer: He didn’t want anyone confusing Jesus with the Egyptian Prophet! Don’t know. Helpers are marshaled in response to the growing need for help given the escalating success of Jesus’ ministry. It occurs in Luke 7. [31]See Roger R. Keller, “Mark and Luke: Two Facets of a Diamond,” in Sperry Symposium Classics: The New Testament, ed. B iblical scholars agree almost universally that Mark is our earliest gospel which was later used by Matthew and Luke as a major source. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Some ask why the ointment, which was incredibly expensive, was wasted when it could have been sold and the money given to the poor. How and why would Luke have edited Mark 14:3-9 contrasted with Luke 7:36-50? (See Luke’s resurrection chapter discussion. According to course materials (Bible, textbook, digital materials linked below, etc. [38]See Spencer W. Kimball, “The Blessings and Responsibilities of Womanhood,” March 1976 Ensign. ), Canonical Luke can therefore be read as making changes to Mark’s gospel that reflect a program to strengthen the foundational place of the disciples in the Church. Use the following two sets of passages to support your claim. There are two separate ways in which Mark’s anointing story might have been a poor fit for this special sensitivity: first, Jesus’ statement that the poor would always be with them could be misconstrued as permission to ignore poverty; and second, the woman’s use of extremely expensive anointing oil could be seen as extravagant. . And so was also James, and John, the sons of Zebedee, which were partners with Simon. [31] Luke omits Mark’s anointing story in order to focus our gaze on other aspects of Jesus’ ministry. ), “Canonical Luke can therefore be read as making changes to Mark’s gospel that reflect a program to strengthen the foundational place of the disciples in the Church.”. Not only did Mark write the Gospel, he also founded the Church of Alexandria, which is referred to in early Christianity as one of … Your clarity of expression, fair comments and personal insights are much valued. Jesus was tempted three different times. Luke includes four stories, three of them unique, that feature a common pattern: (1) Jesus (2) dining (3) with sinners, (4) arousing criticism from the righteous (5:27–32; 7:36–50; 15:1–32; 19:1–10).24 In three of these stories, the complaint comes specifically from Pharisees― a point Luke emphasizes in the redaction of Mark 2:13–17 (par. Luke Luke is an interesting writer because he did not know Jesus Christ personally. Mark and Luke said that Peter didn’t know what he said. Explain how and why Luke may have edited Mark’s Gospel. [10] These six instances reflect Mark’s vision of discipleship: Mark teaches that Jesus doesn’t expect his disciples to be flawless; he expects them to stick close by so that they might increase in understanding. Given that we see a flood of OT paradigmatic interpretations in the gospels,…. Mark 16 is the final chapter of the Gospel of Mark in the New Testament of the Christian Bible.It begins with the discovery of the empty tomb by Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome.There they encounter a young man dressed in white who announces the resurrection of Jesus ().The two oldest manuscripts of Mark 16 (from the 300s) then conclude with verse 8, which ends with … He says Mark abbreviated Mathew and Luke used both Mark and Mathew to come up with his gospel. Nonetheless, Nephi’s shaping achieves the laudable goal of presenting a clear choice between good and evil and this benefits his readers. Given that both high and low christologies are combined in one story, the picture that emerges is full. 1807. Mark 10:44-45...and whoever wants to be first must be slave of all.For even the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many. Marcan priority, the hypothesis that the Gospel of Mark was the first-written of the three synoptic gospels and was used as a source by the other two (Matthew and Luke) is a central element in discussion of the synoptic problem – the question of the documentary relationship among these three gospels.. . (In Mark Jesus heals Peter’s mother-in-law without a word.) Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. 1605169316. Mark 9:35 Sitting down, Jesus called the Twelve and said, "If anyone wants to be first, he must be the very last, and the servant of … Yet Luke would challenge this, not just in his Gospel but also in a second work, the Acts of the Apostles, where women are active in the early church. It looks like Luke or some later redactor has got into a muddle and put the first meeting of Peter and Jesus AFTER Jesus visited Peter’s place. Whether this change was made to harmonize with Matthew’s account or to reflect Mark’s original text cannot be determined. Luke, oddly, first has Jesus going into Peter’s house, and only afterwards calling him and others. I call them amateurs only for the reason that they don’t have, so far as I know, advanced degrees in the subject. And so it tells the story in some slightly different ways than do the other gospels. Latter-day Saint beliefs, perhaps more than those of other Christians, are well suited to accommodate strong editors because we believe in the inspired revision of scripture and we are not tied to the sole authority of a closed canon. I certainly find a strong historical core to the New Testament accounts, and Brown allows room for some degree of editorial discretion. . However, I think personally that Tertullian, Ireneaus, and Epiphianus had never seen Marcion’s gospel. However, neither of these theories is as likely as the interpretation offered in this paper, which is that Luke intentionally omitted the anointing story. The first reason is that the story didn’t fit the message that Luke wanted to convey about what it means to be a disciple of Jesus. Use the following two sets of passages to support your claim. as individual as personal testimonies; they each approach Jesus from a different angle.”[30] So it is perhaps no surprise that, given the limitations under which they had to work, the Gospel writers would choose different stories in order to highlight or de-emphasize certain aspects of Jesus’ life.

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